What does the word “bibliography” mean? Overall, it is a scientific discipline dealing with the description, systematization, and accounting of books, and nonfiction books, articles, theses, and so on. Bibliography in the simple definition is all the works involved in a written project.

What is the bibliography we are interested in? 

When writing articles, books, or academic papers you face the need to compile a bibliography.
Any bibliography entry should obligatory include:

  • Author;
  • Title;
  • Information about publication;
  • Date

The bibliography can be alphabetical, chronological, systematic, or executed as it was first mentioned. In the small paper, it is most convenient to use an alphabetical list. Wanting to show the process in development, choose a chronological order. To show the connection of the investigated problem with the various branches of science, a systematic list is more preferable. List in order of the first mention can only be used in very small works.

When you choose alphabetical order, first place the authors alphabetically or titles of collective publications or those when the writer is not specified.
In a chronological list, distribute the literature on the year. Sources published in one year, are provided in alphabetical order.
To make a systematic bibliography, create a card of disciplines to which the matter relates. In the beginning, make a separate list of relevant sources for all sections. Within each section alphabetical list is applied.
Through numbering is applied everywhere.


In compiling the bibliography you should be compulsory to follow one of three basic standards set by the following organizations and documents: the American Psychological Association (APA) for scientific papers, the Modern Language Association ​​(MLA) for literary texts, and the Chicago Manual Style for books and magazines.

An APA annotated bibliography format looks in a chronological way, beginning with the one that is the earliest. The full name is given.

In MLA or Chicago styles, the entries are presented in alphabetical order. The author’s name is given only in the initial entry, then you replace it with 3 hyphens.

But every educational establishment has its particular requirements how the bibliography should look like, what’s its format. They can also provide annotated bibliography format examples.

What is an annotated bibliography?

This is a list of works, where every entry is supplied with a paragraph describing it. An annotated bibliography informs about the accuracy and quality of the sources quoted. The distinction between a simple bibliography and a bibliography with annotations is that the first type contains only a list of works, and the second one is a summary or evaluation. Working on an annotated bibliography helps you find useful material for your research project.

The main aim of a bibliography is to provide credit to the writers whose works were used in your paper. But there is one more aim: to help your readers find the papers used.

A good bibliography means a good grade as it shows a breadth of research. Try to avoid fails on your bibliography page. Start the bibliography from a new page and every entry goes on a detached line. The entries are usually made in a hanging indent style, meaning that the initial line is not indented.

As there are different formats to quote the sources applied in the research papers, there are various styles to make bibliographies. They are often also called “references” or “works cited”.